How an antique Illinois Family Photo Album came to Canada via New Jersey


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another cool article that I thought you would like!

My good friend Illya of LiveRoots.comsent me a gift several years ago of an antique photo album. The Album has had a rough life, and needed a good home, so Illya bid on it at a New Jersey auction, won the album and shipped it to me here in Canada.

Bertha Timmerman FichterThe album has slots for 64 cabinet cards, and one tintype. 2 Cabinet Cards are missing, for a total of 63 ancestor family photos in this album. 15 of the Cabinet Card photographs were identified with writing on the album pages.

With the identification of those 15 photos and the clues from the photographers who took the photographs, I was able to find the family in the census for Chicago Illinois and determine that this album belonged to the Timmerman Family.

The Timmerman Family Photo Album is full of beautiful photographs, most taken in the period 1890 – 1910. Most of the photos were taken by photographers in Chicago Illinois – Morrison, Jaeger, Hoffman Studios, Vahlteich and others. A few were taken in Omaha Nebraska.

I wondered how a Chicago Photo Album over 100 years old ended up at a New Jersey auction, but research found that one of the Timmerman daughters (Bertha Timmerman) married a man named George Fichtner and moved from Chicago to Boontown New Jersey sometime between 1910 and 1920. No doubt the album was cared for by this daughter and her descendants for many years.

Olive Tree Genealogy has scanned several of the photos and published them online for all descendants and interested researchers to enjoy. I will be scanning all the photos and placing them all online in hopes that genealogists will recognize an ancestor. I’ve also written up the genealogy research I did on the Timmerman family and published it online as well. Hopefully interested descendants will enjoy this look into the family photographs of more than 100 years ago.

There are 63 other antique family photo albums (mostly from the Civil War era) online on Lost Faces on Olive Tree Genealogy website. More are being added as I scan them.

Unique Genealogical Highlights of the Brigham Young University Family History Library — Part Five


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another incredible “HowTo” that I thought you would enjoy!

Part of a huge microfilm collection of local county histories in the BYU Family History LibraryThere is a significant physical difference between doing research in the Salt Lake City, Utah Family History Library and the Brigham Young University, Family History Library. In the Salt Lake City Family History Library (FHL), the collections of books and microfilm are concentrated in a relatively small area. The FHL’s collections are on mainly on four floors; two basement levels and two upper story levels. The first floor is now dedicated to classrooms and an extensive Family Discovery Area with all sorts of high-tech activities. At BYU, the Family History Library is extensive, but only a small part of the huge Harold B. Lee Library (Lee Library). In both cases, it is extremely important to plan your visits by using their online catalogs.

Visitors to the BYU Family History Library usually concentrate on the computers with support from the volunteers and missionaries. Very few of these casual visitors realize the extent of the research resources in the rest of the Lee Library. Unlike the concentrated collections in the Salt Lake FHL, the collections at the Lee Library are scattered throughout the general collections. Let me illustrate this contrast by choosing a random subject for research. Let’s suppose I was researching my ancestors in a county in Massachusetts. I choose “Barnstable County” for this illustration.

In either library, I would need to determine whether or not I needed to physically visit the library to do some research. Because of their close proximity, I am not forced into an either/or situation. I can visit both libraries. I plan my visit by searching in the catalogs for both libraries. Here is a screenshot of the categories of records available for that county at the Salt Lake FHL.

Barnstable County, Massachusetts records from the CatalogMany of the records listed are on microfilm with some already digitized and available online. For example here are the Church records available from the FHL.

Barnstable County, Massachusetts Church Records from the Catalog
Realistically, there are only two items. The list seems to have four copies of the same set of records. The church records turn out to be an article in a journal.

I need to check further to find this particular journal article. It turns out to be part of a Serial Issue. question is do I need to visit the library to view this publication? A quick check in the Lee Library catalog shows that they have the same serial publication.

But the Lee Library catalog also shows that this particular serial, The Mayflower descendant, is online but I have to be in the library to see the online version. Now, we come to a new issue. Can I find this same item somewhere else? I always check to see if I can avoid a trip to either library by finding the item online.

As a matter of fact, I do find this exact item on the Internet Archive. is a screenshot of the exact article I looked for.
The article is completely searchable, word for word, and I can download a copy to my own computer if I wish to do so.

This example shows the interaction between both of these huge genealogy libraries and the reality of the ongoing digitization projects around the world. In this case, I do not have to make a physical visit to either library. In addition, neither library makes their copies available online so I will have to go to the library if the item was not easily available online.

But let’s go back to the Lee Library and the BYU Family History Library and take a closer look at the catalog. If I am looking for Barnstable County, Massachusetts records, a search in the Lee Library Catalog shows that there are 622 results.
Now I have a substantial basis for doing research in the Library. If there are items I would like to examine, in each case, I would take the time to check to see if the items were digitized and available online. When I do a further search for church records from Barnstable County, I find that the Lee Library has 201 results.

A considerably larger selection of items than the two found in the Salt Lake FHL Catalog. Some of these 201 items may also be online or in the Salt Lake FHL, but it is almost certain that some are not.

In the case of both libraries, I would choose some items I was interested in reviewing and go to the shelves and begin the process of checking all of the surrounding items. In the case of the Lee Library, I can do a virtual search of the adjacent shelves online.

Here is an example.

I can browse by title, subject, call number, genres, journals, and creators.

It is easy to get overwhelmed with the number of items to review and yes, it does take a considerable amount of time and repeated searches to find all the relevant information. But it should also be clear that as a genealogical researcher, we cannot ignore the resources that are available and conclude that we have done a thorough search.

The previous posts in this series.

Re my comment on the value of a five year old computer.


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another awesome “Tutorial” that I thought you would enjoy!

Due to a comment on my last post, I should have looked a little further. The computer I used as a comparison was not “new” it was actually a “Certified Refurbished product is tested and certified to look and work like new” with a 90-day warranty. My mistake. But the issue is still the same. The Pentium Dual-Core brand was built my Intel from 2006 to 2009. Most of the dual processor refurbished computers for sale are being offered at less than $100. But if you look a little further, you can buy a used Optiplex Desktop Computer with an Intel i5 quad-core processor for around $145. New Intel i3 processor computers stat at under $400.00. A new 2017 HP Pavilion with an AMD Quad-Core processor is $429.00. Even with these examples, I could have made my point better. Every time a new chipset comes out, the price of the older computers drops. Here is the add for the HP.

What will this computer be worth when it is five years old? Computers can almost be considered to be a consumable product. The used price is based on the cost of refurbishing (cleaning) the machine.

Thanks for keeping me awake and strictly accurate.

More buying choices forOptiPlex Desktop Computer – Intel Core i5 i5-3470 3.20 GHz – Desktop

Intel announces new Core i9 chips: Changes will start affecting new computers immediately


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another incredible “Tip” that I thought you would enjoy!

The wheels of technology keep turning. Intel has announced its new Core i9 chips for consumer level computers. The high end of this new chipset is the Core i9 Extreme which is the first consumer level processor to incorporate 18-cores and 36-threads. For comparison, if you are using an older computer, it may have a single core processor or perhaps a dual core processor. A “core” is the processing unit which receives instructions and performs calculations, or actions, based on those instructions. A set of instructions can allow a software program perform a specific function. Processors can have a single core or multiple cores. See Core from Essentially, with programming that takes advantage of the new chips, computers can become many times faster.

As genealogists, unless you are also a gamer or making commercially viable movies, you probably would never use all of that computer power. But as with any advancement in electronic technology, the effects of this advance will resonate throughout the computer industry. It means your present computer just became one full step older and less useful to programmers. The real impact comes over a short period of time as the manufacturers incorporate the new chips in their new computers and the old computers become less valuable. Right now, a five-year-old computer has almost no value. For example, right now on, a new “dual core” computer is selling for about $125.  That’s right the whole computer is $125 dollars. Here is a screenshot of the ad.

So, if you think your present computer has any kind of resale value, you are probably wrong.

Retired? What You Should Know About Getting Your Affairs In Order


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another awesome “Tip” that I thought you would enjoy!

Retired? What You Should Know About Getting Your Affairs In Order
Urns | Online

Planning ahead is a wise move regardless of what age you are. Typically, getting your affairs in order becomes more of a priority when you reach those senior years. Planning for the future and for the uncertainties the future may hold is one of the best things you can do for yourself and your family. […]

MyHeritage announces its dramatically new Comprehensive DNA Ethnicity Analysis


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another incredible “Tutorial” that I thought you would like!

MyHeritage DNA’s new Ethnicity Estimate experience from MyHeritage on Vimeo.

Some time ago, I learned that MyHeritage was building a detailed project to hand-pick thousands of participants worldwide to build an ethnic database. Today, that becomes a reality. Here is the press release explaining the program.
MyHeritage Launches New Comprehensive DNA Ethnicity Analysis MyHeritage DNA’s new Ethnicity Estimate covers 42 different ethnic regions, more than any other major DNA company; and is uniquely provided for free to those who upload their DNA data from other services TEL AVIV, Israel & LEHI, Utah, May 30, 2017 – MyHeritage, the leading global destination for family history and DNA testing, and the makers of the successful MyHeritage DNA product, today announced the launch of its new and improved Ethnicity Estimate. The new analysis, developed by the company’s science team, provides MyHeritage DNA customers with a percentage-based estimate of their ethnic origins covering 42 ethnic regions, many available only on MyHeritage, representing the most comprehensive report of its type available on the market. This fascinating report gives users a much better understanding of who they are and where their ancestors came from. The Ethnicity Estimate is presented in an original and engaging format, making it not only interesting but also fun to watch and share.

MyHeritage is unique among the main industry players in allowing users who have tested their DNA already with another service to upload – for free – their data to MyHeritage. Those users receive DNA Matches for free, for finding relatives based on shared DNA. Beginning this week, users who have already uploaded their DNA data to MyHeritage, or who will upload it in the coming months, will receive – for free – the new Ethnicity Estimate. This benefit is not offered by any other major DNA company. Development of the new Ethnicity Estimate raises the number of ethnic regions covered by MyHeritage DNA from 36 to 42. It was made possible thanks to MyHeritage’s Founder Populations project — one of the largest of its kind ever conducted. For this unique project, more than 5,000 participants were handpicked by MyHeritage from its 90 million strong user base, by virtue of their family trees exemplifying consistent ancestry from the same region or ethnicity for many generations. All project participants received complimentary DNA tests and allowed MyHeritage’s science team to develop breakthrough ethnicity models based on the generated data. Thanks to this analysis, MyHeritage DNA has become the only mass-market percentage-based DNA test that reveals ethnicities such as Balkan; Baltic; Eskimo & Inuit; Japanese; Kenyan; Sierra Leonean; Somali; four major Jewish groups – Ethiopian, Yemenite, Sephardic from North Africa and Mizrahi from Iran and Iraq; Indigenous Amazonian; Papuan and many others. In some cases, competing products can identify and report an aggregated region (e.g., Italian & Greek), whereas MyHeritage has better resolution and identifies Greek, Italian and Sardinian ethnicities separately. MyHeritage’s new Ethnicity Estimate is delivered to users via a captivating “reveal” experience (view example). It features animation and, as of this week, also original music composed by MyHeritage. Each of the 42 ethnicities has a distinctive tune, based on the region’s cultural elements; all tunes seamlessly connect to each other. This makes the report fun to watch and share over social media. MyHeritage DNA user Tiffany Bowden said “I’m very happy, and very proud to discover where I come from, and through my MyHeritage DNA ethnicity results, now I have the background which helps me understand who I am as a person.” “DNA is the future of the family history industry and we’re delighted to enter the DNA space with strong energies and a fresh perspective”, said Gilad Japhet, Founder and CEO of MyHeritage. “Leveraging MyHeritage’s top assets which are its talented, technology-focused engineering team, and the gigantic internationally diverse web of family trees encompassing more than 2.5 billion profiles entered by our users, our comprehensive new Ethnicity Estimate has Innovation written all over it. We’ve been able to dig deeper where others had considered their work complete. Presented in a fresh look and generously given for free to DNA data uploaders, our users will be thrilled and can count on us to continue to innovate in DNA and delight them with new discoveries about who they really are.” Dr. Yaniv Erlich, Chief Science Officer at MyHeritage, said, “For MyHeritage’s science team, this major update of our Ethnicity Estimate is only an appetizer. There are excellent installments on the way, and users can prepare for a feast! We have detailed plans to increase accuracy, extend our Founder Populations project further, and improve the resolution for ethnicities of great interest to our users from highly diverse origins. Our goal is to use science to further the public good, and to bring the best innovations of our science team to the public.” The MyHeritage DNA test consists of a simple cheek swab and takes less than two minutes to complete, with no need for blood or saliva. The sample is then mailed to MyHeritage DNA’s lab for analysis and the user is invited to view the results on the MyHeritage website, approximately four weeks later. MyHeritage strengthened its position as the leader in global family history, when it launched the MyHeritage DNA kits in November 2016, which have rapidly become hugely popular ever since. The company’s mammoth user base of 90 million users worldwide, more than 7.7 billion historical records, massive user-generated family tree database and availability in 42 languages, all provide a robust foundation for MyHeritage DNA. The company’s DNA offering currently provides two main features: detailed ethnicity reports that reveal the user’s ethnic and geographic origins, and DNA Matches for finding relatives based on shared DNA. In recent months, people have been successfully using MyHeritage DNA to reunite with long-lost family members. MyHeritage DNA kits are available at the affordable price of $79 + shipping. Order MyHeritage DNA, or alternatively, upload DNA data for free. About MyHeritage MyHeritage is the leading global destination for family history and DNA testing. As technology thought leaders, MyHeritage has transformed family history into an activity that is accessible and instantly rewarding. Its global user community enjoys access to a massive library of historical records, the most internationally diverse collection of family trees and groundbreaking search and matching technologies. Launched in November 2016, MyHeritage DNA is a technologically advanced, affordable DNA test that reveals ethnic origins and previously unknown relatives. Trusted by millions of families, MyHeritage provides an easy way to find new family members, discover ethnic origins, and to treasure family stories, past and present, for generations to come. MyHeritage is available in 42 languages. www.myheritage.comI will have more comments in a subsequent post. 

Tips on doing the deceased’s makeup for a home funeral


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another great “HowTo” that I thought you would enjoy!

Tips on doing the deceased’s makeup for a home funeral
Urns | Online

If you’re choosing to do a home funeral, you will want to make the deceased look as natural as possible. Here, we detail the basics on how to apply makeup to a dead person, then provide a range of tips doing the deceased’s makeup for a home funeral. Home funerals are not the norm in the United […]

Help Reading 17th Century Dutch Church Records


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another awesome “HowTo” that I thought you would like!

If you have ancestors who settled in New Netherland (now New York) in the 1600s, you will undoubtably eventually find yourself struggling with Dutch words and handwriting. You may even venture into research from the Amsterdam Archives Church Records which have been microfilmed.

Amsterdam Doopregisters (Baptism Registers) follow a fairly consisent format. They show names (sometimes an occupation) of father, mother, child and sponsor(s).

You don’t need to read Dutch, you only need to be able to pick out and read the names of the individuals you are interested in. But it is more difficult than it sounds. 17th century letter formations are very different than what we are used to. Dutch names and spellings are something new to many of us as well.

Example from a 17th Century Marriage record from Amsterdam

As I was struggling to learn how to read this early Dutch script, I made up a little booklet which I add to each time I figure out something new.

I use my little home-made guide to help me interpret what I am looking at in these early (1600s) records. Other researchers asked me to send them copies of my notes and examples, so I made up a mini-tutorial.

I am not an expert, I muddle along as best I can, but researchers I sent the tutorial to seemed to find it helpful, so here it is. I hope that if any of you are starting to dig into those distant records you will find this at least interesting if not helpful in some small way.

I’ll add to these Blog notes as I get the pages of my little guide scanned. Remember, it’s FUN and it’s NEW and it can be intimidating but just keep on plowing through one step at a time.

Source of Registers: Amsterdam Doop (Baptism) Registers on Microfilm

Finding an entry on a page of records from 1621

Click on the image for a larger picture, or View larger image. You can also view a larger image here

This is a page of church baptismal records from 1621 in Amsterdam. The entry I was looking for was for Claesje the daughter of Teunis Dircks & Aefje Pieters.

This is a relatively easy page to read compared to some! The handwriting is neat and legible, the filmed record is not dark, and the size of the writing is not too small.

Reading Dutch Script: Studying the letter formations on a page of records

If you need help with Dutch names, you might find my section on New Netherland (present day New York) of some help. Anyone with ancestors from New York in the 1600s may find themselves with Dutch ancestry (which is what got me started on all this!)

It gives examples of Dutch names = English names = Shortened Dutch names (nicknames). It also explains the use of suffixes -je or -tje, -je, -tje, -ie and -ke

To learn the patronymic naming system and the suffixes used there, you might find Understanding Patronymics helpful

Reading Dutch Script: Steps to take when you find an entry of interest

Step 1: Trace the entry as it displays on the microfilm reader

Step 2: Copy the entry

Step 3: Study the letter formations. Figure out what the entry says

Reading Dutch Script: More Letter Formations

Using this same page of church records we can learn other letter shapes and names

Reading Dutch Script: Figuring out even more letter formations

Unmarked Graves and Unidentified Dead: Genealogical Mysteries


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another incredible “Tutorial” that I thought you would like!

By Kosboot – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
Unmarked grave of Woolson Morse at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, NY. This is section 135, lot 14964, grave no. 844 which was located for me by the staff of Green-Wood Cemetery and confirmed to be the resting place of Morse.Many years ago, while hiking deep in the Arizona mountains, we ran across an abandoned mine with the vestiges of a settlement. There we found a long neglected cemetery partially hidden in the brush and trees. The grave markers consisted of simple wooden crosses that had long deteriorated. Since becoming more involved in genealogical research, I have thought about that cemetery and its unmarked graves. The image above is just one that I randomly selected, but it is typical of many cemeteries in the United States and around the world. How many of our dead lie in unmarked and forgotten graves?

I recently ran across an article entitled, “One Man’s Obsessive Quest to Identify a 96-Year-Old Dead Body.” The article describes the efforts of one person to identify a person buried about 96 years ago. This article started me thinking about all the small, abandoned cemeteries and unmarked graves there are in the world. As genealogists, we are becoming aware of the place DNA testing is taking as an identification aid. But unlike the story in question, we are probably not into the idea of digging up the remains to try to identify the people. My wife’s family has a current issue with one of her great-grandfather’s burial. Apparently, his grave is unmarked and until recently, my wife did not know where the cemetery was located. We are now motivated to do some investigation and determine the grave site.

Identifying unmarked graves combines careful genealogical research with extensive geographical map location efforts. However, today, many of the previously unidentified dead are being identified through DNA testing. Here is an example of the type of activity that is going on to identify previously unidentifiable military casualties.
This is a topic that I will probably address, especially as my wife and her family try to identify the grave of her ancestor.

There is always more to say about DNA


When someone you love becomes a Memory, the memory becomes a Treasure…

Ceramic Outdoor Memorial Plaques with Online Virtual Family Legacy Memoir!

Here’s another incredible “Tutorial” that I thought you would like!

My connections to the Iberian Peninsula and my wife’s connections to the Middle East have given me further incentive to delve further into the practical realities of genealogical DNA testing. First of all, this type of discussion can get technical really fast. What we are talking about here is haplogroups. Here is the definition of a haplogroup from the Wikipedia article, Haplogroup.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent,[1][2] and a haplogroup (haploid from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, simple” and English: group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.I am going to leave in all the cross references to allow you to do your own study of this issue. Quoting from the article further:
In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Neither recombines, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents’ genetic material.In genealogical DNA testing, we encounter another type of test; the autosomal DNA test. Here is as simple an explanation of autosomal DNA as you can find from Wikipedia: Genealogical DNA test.
Autosomal DNA is the 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not contribute to sex.[2] These are inherited exactly equally from both parents and roughly equally from grandparents to about 3x great-grandparents.[3] Inheritance is more random and unequal from more distant ancestors.[4] Generally, a genealogical DNA test might test about 700,000 SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms). Like mtDNA and Y-DNA SNPs, autosomal SNPs are changes at a single point in the genetic code. Autosomal DNA recombines each generation.[5] Therefore, the number of markers shared with a specific ancestor decreases by about half each generation. [I edited some typographical errors, but I am leaving in all the links]Essentially, the Y-DNA and mtDNA tests can go back thousands of years, but the autosomal DNA test results become quickly attenuated with time. From a genealogical standpoint, the main issue is the “margin of error” with all three types of tests. If we look at the “AncestryDNA Terms and Conditions (United States)” we find the following statements:
We attempt to ensure that all Content on the Website is complete and accurate. Despite our efforts, the Content may occasionally be inaccurate or incomplete and we make no representation that the Content on the Website is complete, accurate, reliable or error-free.The Terms and Conditions go on to explain:
We make no express warranties or representations as to the quality and accuracy of the Content, the Website or the Service, and we disclaim any implied warranties or representations, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement, to the full extent permissible under applicable law. We offer the Content, the Website and the Service on an “as is” basis and do not accept responsibility for any use of or reliance on the Website, Content or Service, or for any disruptions to or delay in the Service. In addition, we do not make any representations as to the accuracy, comprehensiveness, completeness, quality, currency, error-free nature, compatibility, security or fitness for purpose of the Website, Content or Service.Of course, this does not address the accuracy of the AncestryDNA test at all. It simply states that they are not going to tell you how accurate the tests really are.

So how accurate are the DNA tests? Dick Eastman had a post not long ago that addressed this issue. He linked to an interesting news story on Yahoo TV entitled, “Investigation Puts Ancestry DNA Kits to the Test Among Sets of Triplets.” The newscasters threw in a set of quads for good measure. The real issue with all of the tests is the margin of error.

The term “margin of error” is defined as follows from Wikipedia: Margin of error:
The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey’s results. It asserts a likelihood (not a certainty) that the result from a sample is close to the number one would get if the whole population had been queried. The likelihood of a result being “within the margin of error” is itself a probability, commonly 95%, though other values are sometimes used. The larger the margin of error, the less confidence one should have that the poll’s reported results are close to the true figures; that is, the figures for the whole population. Margin of error applies whenever a population is incompletely sampled. Margin of error is often used in non-survey contexts to indicate observational error in reporting measured quantities.For the DNA tests results to have a greater degree of believability, they should come with a clear statement of the probable margin of error since the test results are certainly incompletely sampled. There could be a number of explanations why the identical triplets came up with different percentages reported for a DNA test, but the real issue is, again, the margin of error. This is especially true when the reported relationships are based on very small percentages of shared DNA.

DNA testing still has a long way to go before it is entirely useful beyond a few generations.